Article type: Research Article
Affiliations: [a] SPARCC Sports Medicine, Rehabilitation, and Concussion Center, Tucson, AZ, USA | [b] Department of Pediatrics, Tucson Medical Center, Tucson, AZ, USA | [c] WAVi Research, Boulder, CO, USA
Correspondence: [*] Corresponding author: David S. Oakley, 6606 South Boulder Rd Boulder CO 80303, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Numerous studies have reported electrophysiological differences between concussed and non-concussed groups, but few studies have systematically explored recovery trajectories from acute concussion to symptom recovery and the transition from acute concussion to prolonged phases. Questions remain about recovery prognosis and the extent to which symptom resolution coincides with injury resolution. This study therefore investigated the electrophysiological differences in recoveries between simple and complex concussion. METHODS: Student athletes with acute concussion from a previous study (19(2) years old) were tracked from pre-injury baseline, 24–48 hours after concussion, and through in-season recovery. The electroencephalography (EEG) with P300 evoked response trajectories from this acute study were compared to an age-matched population of 71 patients (18(2) years old) with prolonged post-concussive symptoms (PPCS), 61 (SD 31) days after concussion. RESULTS: Acute, return-to-play, and PPCS groups all experienced a significant deficit in P300 amplitude compared to the pre-injury baseline group. The PPCS group, however, had significantly different EEG spectral and coherence patterns from every other group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that while the evoked response potentials deficits of simple concussion may persist in more prolonged stages, there are certain EEG measures unique to PPCS. These metrics are readily accessible to clinicians and may provide useful parameters to help predict trajectories, characterize injury (phenotype), and track the course of injury.
Keywords: Acute concussion, prolonged post-concussion syndrome, return to play, electroencephalogram, event related potentials
Journal: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 287-299, 2023